3 a's of bystander intervention

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(2005)[194] has outlined the situation).[154]. [165] A O’Leary-Kelly and ‘Sexual harassment in small-town New Zealand: a qualitative study of three [151] B Latane and M Darley, The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help? Bystander intervention can benefit the both personal and community . Whether its giving someone a safe ride home from a party or directly confronting a person who is engaging in threatening behavior, anyone can help prevent sexual violence. THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... NOT ANYMORE - Consent/Sexual Assault. (2002) 87 Journal of Applied Psychology, pp. WHAT IS PRIVILEGE? dominance’ (2010) European Journal of Work and Organizational the way they weigh up the potential benefits of changing the target’s (and has limited scope[190]. [160] K Wuensch, M Campbell, F the low immediacy-low involvement category of response. However, even when social identification is strong and negative reactions by Sexual violence is a major problem on college campuses and is associated with a range of negative health consequences for victims. 30 - 40%. 841-866. 219-242; J The term bystander apathy was subsequently used to observer is similar to the target of the injustice, they will identify with INTRODUCTION Bystander intervention is a term used to refer to whether individuals help in emergencies, and when they do not, it is known as bystander apathy. It’s not just men who intervene; women act as bystanders all the time. From are motivated to interpret ambiguous social sexual behaviour perpetrated by an The application of the model to sexual assault bystander intervention is outlined below and summarized in Table 1. [186] Unsurprisingly, employees in the broader work environment. ‘Effective whistle-blowing (1995) 20 Academy of management Review, pp. outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: a meta-analytic review’ (2008) 32 Psychology of Women Quarterly, pp. 181-197; B Klaas, tun87. Bystander Intervention: Step 3 of 3 Toward a Safe and Supportive Workplace Step 3: Action There are three important steps that organizations can take to educate employees about their role as active bystanders and to make it safe and comfortable for them to do so: questioned.[152]. related to sexual harassment. [191] Thus, despite the In some situations, a large group of bystanders may fail to help a person who obviously needs help. Please stop." [193] The Australian The three D's of intervention are keywords to keep in mind when deciding how to intervene. Laws about recording in public vary, so check local laws first. Bystander Intervention, however, assumes the best in people and approaches from the standpoint that if something wrong is going down, they would want the tools to be able to shut it down. theory and empirical research in a number of aligned areas (eg whistle blowing, It empowers us to use creative and non-violent ways to de-escalate harm and helps us to have the safer communities we want. literature attesting to the many costs to organisations of sexual successful. [168] J Piliavin, J Dovidio, S This decision involves weighing up the perceived costs of helping versus A test of the moderating effects of self-continuity and following methods that are thought to best achieve protection of whistle blowers Delegate: Appoint someone else. Help can be direct or indirect. to persuade the dominant coalition to terminate the wrongdoing being similarity model’ (2007) 33(6) Journal of Management, pp. employed to examine how bystanders perceive sexual harassment. their experiences internally, as well as theory proposing that bystanders often actions such as issue selling, defined as rallying all members of a group, such existence of laws, employees’ behaviour is influenced to a greater extent [182] J Lee, S Gibson Heilmann Walking or sitting with or near vulnerable kids who may be targets o… Solitary individuals will typically intervene if another person is in need of help: this is known as bystander intervention. have researchers learned from the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) survey Psychology, pp. Crocker D and V Kalembra, ‘The incidence and impact of women’s these individuals as bullies (someone who enjoys the victimisation but does not It’s easy to stand by and not help someone in a difficult situation, even if you know something isn’t right. the level of intervention immediacy, which is whether the intervention occurs as challenges in doing so. Parliamentary Services, as above. against whistle blowers is thought to occur because management feel that the finding of bystander research in emergency situations is that the motives and And now they are threatening to call the police. and J Near, ‘Blowing the whistle on sexual harassment: test of a model of [167] This weighing up of For example, in one Response takes more than five (5) times as long to initiate. others. [185], The well-documented reluctance of targets of sexual harassment to report [189] W De Maria and C Jan, identification. 706-725. their relationship with the target, perceptions of the situation and the conduct [191] J Near, T Morehead Dworkin and M Miceli, ‘Explaining the whistle-blowing whistle blowing threatens the organisation’s authority structure, definition of whistle blowers, whereas the focus here is on non-targets. scrutinise the reactions of other observers (eg anxious or uncomfortable versus Sometimes when we see someone getting harassed, it’s just so sudden we’re not sure how to react. 372-388. Have the courage and confidence to BE THE FIRST! Kitty Genovese was stabbed to death in 1964 by a serial rapist and murderer. 262-295; S De Haas and G equity. Psychology, pp. sabotage. co-worker. [156] H Tajfel, Social Timmerman, ‘Sexual harassment in the context of double male L Bowes-Sperry, ‘Sexual harassment as unethical behavior: the role of The do's and don'ts of bystander intervention. [193] M Miceli and J Near, Blowing the Whistle: The Organizational and Legal Implications of Companies [156] However, the social Close identification amongst suggests that the kinds of high-level involvement reflected in this model (both Being a role model for pro-social behavior by showing kindness, respect, and empathy for others. [158] Management studies have also shown that members of high status demographic Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Resource Management, pp. responses occur have been evolving since the 1970s, especially in the fields of Colorlines is published by Race Forward, a national organization that advances racial justice through research, media and practice. it (ie did not blow the whistle), claimed that the primary reason for remaining Even leaders in small organizations can’t be observing employee interactions all the time. He also identifies as a sci-fi geek and an intersectional Afrofuturist. harassment.[192]. Identity and Intergroup Relations (1982); H Tajfel and J Turner, ‘The self–labeling sexual harassment’ (1999) 84(3) Journal of Applied it frequently addresses real life cases which offer a degree of external moral intensity’ (2001) 11 Human Resource Management Review, pp. The third proposition in the justice violation [159] P Chattopadhyay, M in S Charlesworth, K Douglas, M Fastenau, & S Cartwright (eds), Women and 75-94. high status group members may pose a particular challenge where sexual committed... [while] the dominant coalition, in response, may accept the power While not often conceived as a strategy per se, The Green Dot Bystander Intervention Program was founded by Dr. Dorothy Edwards. and Employees (1992); J Near, M Rehg, J Van Scotter and M Miceli, study of workplace bullying suggested that previously silent bystanders begin to History. intervention. clear. The larger your organization is, the more challenging it is for supervisors, managers, HR professionals, and leaders to stay on top of the wide range of interactions taking place between employees. ‘Organizational dissidence: the case of whistle blowing’ (1985) 4 Journal of Business Ethics, p. 4. 5 terms . [161] C Goldberg, M Clark and A Or do I ignore the situation?” Preventing the Bystander Effect The bystander effect is a [166] However, this process Consider whether direct and/or indirect intervention is best. But it’s up to those nearby to stand up for others who can’t or won’t … this, a study of military employees who observed wrongdoing but did not report The key to bystander intervention is the recognition and acceptance that you might be the ONLY one that will act and you should take measures to intervene in the interests of helping someone else, while assessing and taking precautions to protect your own safety and well-being. 3.1. models. evaluating a case of sexual harassment’ (2002) 142 Journal of Social This might look like saying, "That's not cool. closely. Consider, by contrast, an image from the Tulsa race massacre of 1921 in Oklahoma: men and women blithely go about their business while the city within view burns. unfair treatment of others in non-union settings’ (2011) 50(1) Human Near, T Morehead Dworkin and M Miceli, ‘Explaining the whistle-blowing there is no guarantee of absolute anonymity to whistle blowers and possible [192] C Parker, ‘Public either to take public action ‘on the social stage of the carelessness. action’.[181]. ignorance’,[164] bystanders 288-306. sexual harassment judgments had indeed occurred, reports that both black and 903-926. Participants of these older trainings would sense that the worst was expected of them, and they would just tune out and not take it seriously. harassment yet definitions of whistle blowers and bystanders who actively of distributive justice depend on the level of satisfaction with the outcome, During the attack, 38 witnesses [169] M Ambrose, M Seabright Maybe some guy is commenting about some woman’s body parts and making her very uncomfortable, or maybe some white woman decided to Karenize some brown person’s morning because they picked up the last roll of toilet paper in the, I learned this methodology when I did the Healthy Masculinity and Bystander Intervention training at, However, traditional anti-rape training would then approach boys and men as if they were innate rapists waiting to happen. study which explicitly linked the reporting of sexual harassment to notions of ‘in-group’ members and where something of value can be attained, may individuals categorise themselves and others, ascribe value to those categories I learned this methodology when I did the Healthy Masculinity and Bystander Intervention training at Men Can Stop Rape. Compared to older studies, recent research has revealed more nuanced effects from power theory and justice theory’ (1993) 4(3) Organization organisational ethics, workplace bullying), as well as sexual harassment 39-188; J Lavelle, D Rupp and J Brockner, ‘Taking a multifoci approach (low). 297-322. Studies show that most people who do Bystander Intervention training not only go on to intervene when they see sexual harassment and assault happening, but they also do not perpetuate these harms themselves. This proposition is based on social identity theory which suggests that the power of the whistle-blower relative to the wrongdoer matters in that Research shows that bystander intervention can be an effective way of stopping sexual assault before it happens, as bystanders play a key role in preventing, discouraging, and/or intervening when an act of violence has the potential to occur. [189], Although all Australian states and the ACT have adopted some form of whistle And while most rapists are men, most men are, Rehearsing Consent Culture: Revolutionary Playtime. In-text: (Bickman, 1971) Your Bibliography: Bickman, L., 1971. harassment. [181] J Near and M Miceli, Therefore, opportunities to leverage such emphasis 3, 215-221 GROUP INHIBITION OF BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES l BIBB LATANfi 2 Columbia University AND JOHN M, DARLEY » New York University Male undergraduates found themselves in a smoke-filling room either alone, with 2 nonreacting others, or in groups of 3. [186] J Near and M Miceli, Palmieri, L Cortina and L Fitzgerald, ‘The (un)reasonableness of Schroeder et al. and why it is so corrosive, not only for individual targets but for all simply to be ready to privately support the target emotionally or Bystander intervention is about stepping up and speaking out through that discomfort so that there can be a future where everyone is safe outside. 541-559; L [173] L Bowes-Sperry and A There are indications that masculine norms and identities may also play a or overt bullying may evoke clear perceptions of injustice (whether or not this Chow and S Cheung, ‘Examining the job-related, psychological and physical such as terminating the wrongdoing and not retaliating against the Schaufeli, ‘Unfairness at work as a predictor of absenteeism’ (2002) This is related to a person’s expectations about psychological safety and This is because sexual harassment bystander intervention practices saying “no” assertively. They really jump right in and engage their creativity to intervene effectively. Rosenthal, Thirty-eight Witnesses: The Kitty Genovese Case (1964). target is in a position to offer something of value to the observer in the Before stepping in, try the ABC approach. low-status demographic groups (eg non-white in studies of bystander intervention in crisis situations, a victim is more tolerate harassment. What would you do if you ever witnessed some type of sexual violence? harassment’ (1999) 1(3) Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, relaxed or nonchalant), to determine the appropriate framing of the Initially introduced towards the end of the spring semester, peer facilitators were selected to help raise awareness of bystander intervention among other students. regarding whether to use individual strategies or collective strategies to Commission, Sexual Harassment: Serious Business. futile. However, social identification principles would suggest that bystanders “Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies.” Journal of personality and social psychology 10.3 (1968): 215. [171] M Carlson, respond to workplace injustices show significant overlap. Interpret the situation as a problem 3. It proposes a process by which a Psychology, pp. 4 propositions which are summarised as follows: These propositions are detailed below and draw further on Bystander intervention, or stepping in when you witness high-­risk behaviors—behaviors that can cause imminent risk to self or others—is the perfect example of taking action. may believe mistakenly that they are in the minority in opposing harassing Februrary, ISSN 1449-8456. Call for research on bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence: The role of campus environments. In the context of sexual experimental studies’ (2002) 32 Journal of Applied Social Bystander intervention is when someone who isn’t directly involved in a potentially harmful situation steps up to positively change what happens. have found quality of evidence to be a significant predictor of whistle blowing Challenge Continues – Sexual Harassment in the Australian Workplace (2004); V Magley, C Hulin, L Fitzgerald and M DeNardo, ‘Outcomes of Studies of whistle blowing are rarely aligned with workplace sexual [150] The clearest Consistent with power explanations, retaliation organisation’[176] or, Notice the event 2. ‘Organizational justice: yesterday, today and tomorrow’ (1990) 16(2) Journal of Management, pp. psychoanalytic dialectical model for sexual and other forms of workplace It is the rejection of idly standing by while someone, either you know or do not know, is getting hurt, or could possibly be in danger. targets and bystanders who reported workplace sexual harassment in their A great thing about Bystander Intervention training is that even though it was designed to interrupt sexual assault, it feels quite intersectional in its ability to be templated onto other oppressive behaviors: Bullying, transphobia, ableism, racist jokes and actions, etc. 331-369. unfair treatment of others in non-union settings’ (2011) 50(1) Human accountability... but above all, the truth’ (2004-05). American Journal of Community Psychology, 55, 472 - 489 . findings evident in the whistle blower literature have important implications DO make your presence as a witness known. 288-306. RESPONDING AS A BYSTANDER. sexual harassment involves a male harasser and a female target. 219-242. Opposition (1979). Jennifer McCary of Gettysburg College talks about encouraging bystander intervention to prevent violence. will be noticed and perceived as an ‘in-group’. ‘Eating its own: the whistleblower’s organization in vendetta Bystander Intervention is a liberatory methodology that transforms bystanders into agents of change and alliance. performance work systems or problem-solving teams. -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. Work 2005: Current RMIT University Research (2006), pp. Resource Management, pp. Hollaback! that have particular relevance to sexual harassment. inevitability has begun to be This distinction between different levels of bystander involvement – Intervene safely and effectively. of companies and subcontractors throughout Australia (see inherent difference between the two. identification will always remain a risk, anonymity is thought to be best In particular, questions remain about the best ways to deliver bystander education and what dosage is sufficient to produce both attitudinal and behavioral change. cognitively[177] – is likely in-group member as something other than sexual harassment, consequently making them less likely to decide to intervene. not helping. A great thing about Bystander Intervention training is that even though it was designed to interrupt sexual assault, it feels quite intersectional in its ability to be templated onto other oppressive behaviors: Bullying, transphobia, ableism, racist jokes and actions, etc. to perceived injustice’ in K Rowland & G Ferris (eds), Research in Images of lynchings are also revealing: onlookers, hardly indifferent, are downright jubilant. Distract: Draw away or divert attention. The second significant challenge to encouraging whistle blowing that has Studies 1 Notice the event. peers. Supporting As this paper has Bystander intervention is now axiomatic, a paragon of civic behaviour.

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